In this article, we look at Apache Kafka and NATS Streaming, two messaging systems based on the idea of a commit log. We’ll compare some of the features of both but spend less time talking about Kafka since by now it’s quite well known. Similar to previous studies, we’ll attempt to quantify their general performance characteristics through careful benchmarking.
The purpose of this benchmark is to test drive the newly released NATS Streaming system, which was made generally available just in the last few months. NATS Streaming doesn’t yet support clustering, so we try to put its performance into context by looking at a similar configuration of Kafka.
Unlike conventional message queues, commit logs are an append-only data structure. This results in several nice properties like total ordering of messages, at-least-once delivery, and message-replay semantics. Jay Kreps’ blog post The Log is a great introduction to the concept and particularly why it’s so useful in the context of distributed systems and stream processing (his book I Heart Logs is an extended version of the blog post and is a quick read).
Kafka, which originated at LinkedIn, is by far the most popular and most mature implementation of the commit log (AWS offers their own flavor of it called Kinesis, and imitation is the sincerest form of flattery). It’s billed as a “distributed streaming platform for building real-time data pipelines and streaming apps.” The much newer NATS Streaming is actually a data-streaming layer built on top of Apcera’s high-performance publish-subscribe system NATS. It’s billed as “real-time streaming for Big Data, IoT, Mobile, and Cloud Native Applications.” Both have some similarities as well as some key differences.
Fundamental to the notion of a log is a way to globally order events. Neither NATS Streaming nor Kafka are actually a single log but many logs, each totally ordered using a sequence number or offset, respectively.
In Kafka, topics are partitioned into multiple logs which are then replicated across a number of servers for fault tolerance, making it a distributed commit log. Each partition has a server that acts as the leader. Cluster membership and leader election is managed by ZooKeeper.
NATS Streaming’s topics are called “channels” which are globally ordered. Unlike Kafka, NATS Streaming does not support replication or partitioning of channels, though my understanding is clustering support is slated for Q1 2017. Its message store is pluggable, so it can provide durability using a file-backed implementation, like Kafka, or simply an in-memory store.
NATS Streaming is closer to a hybrid of traditional message queues and the commit log. Like Kafka, it allows replaying the log from a specific offset, the beginning of time, or the newest offset, but it also exposes an API for reading from the log at a specific physical time offset, e.g. all messages from the last 30 seconds. Kafka, on the other hand, only has a notion of logical offsets (correction: Kafka added support for offset lookup by timestamp in 0.10.1.0) . Generally, relying on physical time is an anti-pattern in distributed systems due to clock drift and the fact that clocks are not always monotonic. For example, imagine a situation where a NATS Streaming server is restarted and the clock is changed. Messages are still ordered by their sequence numbers but their timestamps might not reflect that. Developers would need to be aware of this while implementing their business logic.
With Kafka, it’s strictly on consumers to track their offset into the log (or the high-level consumer which stores offsets in ZooKeeper (correction: Kafka itself can now store offsets which is used by the new Consumer API, meaning clients do not have to manage offsets directly or rely on ZooKeeper)). NATS Streaming allows clients to either track their sequence number or use a durable subscription, which causes the server to track the last acknowledged message for a client. If the client restarts, the server will resume delivery starting at the earliest unacknowledged message. This is closer to what you would expect from a traditional message-oriented middleware like RabbitMQ.
Lastly, NATS Streaming supports publisher and subscriber rate limiting. This works by configuring the maximum number of in-flight (unacknowledged) messages either from the publisher to the server or from the server to the subscriber. Starting in version 0.9, Kafka supports a similar rate limiting feature that allows producer and consumer byte-rate thresholds to be defined for groups of clients with its Quotas protocol.
Kafka was designed to avoid tracking any client state on the server for performance and scalability reasons. Throughput and storage capacity scale linearly with the number of nodes. NATS Streaming provides some additional features over Kafka at the cost of some added state on the server. Since clustering isn’t supported, there isn’t really any scale or HA story yet, so it’s unclear how that will play out. That said, once replication is supported, there’s a lot of work going into verifying its correctness (which is a major advantage Kafka has).
Since NATS Streaming does not support replication at this time (0.3.1), we’ll compare running a single instance of it with file-backed persistence to running a single instance of Kafka (0.10.1.0). We’ll look at both latency and throughput running on commodity hardware (m4.xlarge EC2 instances) with load generation and consumption each running on separate instances. In all of these benchmarks, the systems under test have not been tuned at all and are essentially in their “off-the-shelf” configurations.
We’ll first look at latency by publishing messages of various sizes, ranging from 256 bytes to 1MB, at a fixed rate of 50 messages/second for 30 seconds. Message contents are randomized to account for compression. We then plot the latency distribution by percentile on a logarithmic scale from the 0th percentile to the 99.9999th percentile. Benchmarks are run several times in an attempt to produce a “normalized” result. The benchmark code used is open source.
First, to establish a baseline and later get a feel for the overhead added by the file system, we’ll benchmark NATS Streaming with in-memory storage, meaning messages are not written to disk.
NATS Streaming 0.3.1 (in-memory persistence)
Next, we look at NATS Streaming with file-backed persistence. This provides the same durability guarantees as Kafka running with a replication factor of 1. By default, Kafka stores logs under /tmp. Many Unix distributions mount /tmp to tmpfs which appears as a mounted file system but is actually stored in volatile memory. To account for this and provide as level a playing field as possible, we configure NATS Streaming to also store its logs in /tmp.
As expected, latencies increase by about an order of magnitude once we start going to disk.
NATS Streaming 0.3.1 (file-backed persistence)
Since we will be looking at Kafka, there is an important thing to consider relating to fsync behavior. As of version 0.8, Kafka does not call fsync directly and instead relies entirely on the background flush performed by the OS. This is clearly indicated by their documentation:
We recommend using the default flush settings which disable application fsync entirely. This means relying on the background flush done by the OS and Kafka’s own background flush. This provides the best of all worlds for most uses: no knobs to tune, great throughput and latency, and full recovery guarantees. We generally feel that the guarantees provided by replication are stronger than sync to local disk, however the paranoid still may prefer having both and application level fsync policies are still supported.
However, NATS Streaming calls fsync every time a batch is written to disk by default. This can be disabled through the use of the –file_sync flag. By setting this flag to false, we put NATS Streaming’s persistence behavior closer in line with Kafka’s (again assuming a replication factor of 1).
As an aside, the comparison between NATS Streaming and Kafka still isn’t completely “fair”. Jay Kreps points out that Kafka relies on replication as the primary means of durability.
Kafka leaves [fsync] off by default because it relies on replication not fsync for durability, which is generally faster. If you don’t have replication I think you probably need fsync and maybe some kind of high integrity file system.
I don’t think we can provide a truly fair comparison until NATS Streaming supports replication, at which point we will revisit this.
To no one’s surprise, setting –file_sync=false has a significant impact on latency, shown in the distribution below.
In fact, it’s now in line with the in-memory performance as before for 256B, 1KB, and 5KB messages, shown in the comparison below.
For a reason I have yet to figure out, the latency for 1MB messages is roughly an order of magnitude faster when fsync is enabled after the 95th percentile, which seems counterintuitive. If anyone has an explanation, I would love to hear it. I’m sure there’s a good debug story there. The distribution below shows the 1MB configuration for NATS Streaming with and without fsync enabled and just how big the difference is at the 95th percentile and beyond.
NATS Streaming 0.3.1 (file-backed persistence, –file_sync=false)
Kafka with replication factor 1 tends to have higher latencies than NATS Streaming with –file_sync=false. There was one potential caveat here Ivan Kozlovic pointed out to me in that NATS Streaming uses a caching optimization for reads that may put it at an advantage.
Now, there is one side where NATS Streaming *may* be looking better and not fair to Kafka. By default, the file store keeps everything in memory once stored. This means look-ups will be fast. There is only a all-or-nothing mode right now, which means either cache everything or nothing. With caching disabled (–file_cache=false), every lookup will result in disk access (which when you have 1 to many subscribers will be bad). I am working on changing that. But if you do notice that in Kafka, consuming results in a disk read (given the other default behavior described above, they actually may not ;-)., then you could disable NATS Streaming file caching.
Fortunately, we can verify if Kafka is actually going to disk to read messages back from the log during the benchmark using iostat. We see something like this for the majority of the benchmark duration:
avg-cpu: %user %nice %system %iowait %steal %idle 13.53 0.00 11.28 0.00 0.00 75.19 Device: tps Blk_read/s Blk_wrtn/s Blk_read Blk_wrtn xvda 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0
Specifically, we’re interested in Blk_read, which indicates the total number of blocks read. It appears that Kafka does indeed make heavy use of the operating system’s page cache as Blk_wrtn and Blk_read rarely show any activity throughout the entire benchmark. As such, it seems fair to leave NATS Streaming’s –file_cache=true, which is the default.
One interesting point is Kafka offloads much of its caching to the page cache and outside of the JVM heap, clearly in an effort to minimize GC pauses. I’m not clear if the cache Ivan refers to in NATS Streaming is off-heap or not (NATS Streaming is written in Go which, like Java, is a garbage-collected language).
Below is the distribution of latencies for 256B, 1KB, and 5KB configurations in Kafka.
Similar to NATS Streaming, 1MB message latencies tend to be orders of magnitude worse after about the 80th percentile. The distribution below compares the 1MB configuration for NATS Streaming and Kafka.
Kafka 0.10.1.0 (replication factor 1)
The percentile distributions below compare NATS Streaming and Kafka for the 256B, 1KB, and 5KB configurations, respectively.
Next, we’ll look at overall throughput for the two systems. This is done by publishing 100,000 messages using the same range of sizes as before and measuring the elapsed time. Specifically, we measure throughput at the publisher and the subscriber.
Despite using an asynchronous publisher in both the NATS Streaming and Kafka benchmarks, we do not consider the publisher “complete” until it has received acks for all published messages from the server. In Kafka, we do this by setting request.required.acks to 1, which means the leader replica has received the data, and consuming the received acks. This is important because the default value is 0, which means the producer never waits for an ack from the broker. In NATS Streaming, we provide an ack callback on every publish. We use the same benchmark configuration as the latency tests, separating load generation and consumption on different EC2 instances. Note the log scale in the following charts.
Once again, we’ll start by looking at NATS Streaming using in-memory persistence. The truncated 1MB send and receive throughputs are 93.01 messages/second.
For comparison, we now look at NATS Streaming with file persistence and –file_sync=false. As before, this provides the closest behavior to Kafka’s default flush behavior. The second chart shows a side-by-side comparison between NATS Streaming with in-memory and file persistence.
Lastly, we look at Kafka with replication factor 1. Throughput significantly deteriorates when we set request.required.acks = 1 since the producer must wait for all acks from the server. This is important though because, by default, the client does not require an ack from the server. If this were the case, the producer would have no idea how much data actually reached the server once it finished—it could simply be buffered in the client, in flight over the wire, or in the server but not yet on disk. Running the benchmark with request.required.acks = 0 yields much higher throughput on the sender but is basically an exercise in how fast you can write to a channel using the Sarama Go client—slightly misleading.
Looking at some comparisons of Kafka and NATS Streaming, we can see that NATS Streaming has higher throughput in all but a few cases.
I want to repeat the disclaimer from before: the purpose of this benchmark is to test drive the newly released NATS Streaming system (which as mentioned earlier, doesn’t yet support clustering), and put its performance into context by looking at a similar configuration of Kafka.
Kafka generally scales very well, so measuring the throughput of a single broker with a single producer and single consumer isn’t particularly meaningful. In reality, we’d be running a cluster with several brokers and partitioning our topics across them.
For as young as it is, NATS Streaming has solid performance (which shouldn’t come as much of a surprise considering the history of NATS itself), and I imagine it will only get better with time as the NATS team continues to optimize. In some ways, NATS Streaming bridges the gap between the commit log as made popular by Kafka and the conventional message queue as made popular by protocols like JMS, AMQP, STOMP, and the like.
The bigger question at this point is how NATS Streaming will tackle scaling and replication (a requirement for true production-readiness in my opinion). Kafka was designed from the ground up for high scalability and availability through the use of external coordination (read ZooKeeper). Naturally, there is a lot of complexity and cost that comes with that. NATS Streaming attempts to keep NATS’ spirit of simplicity, but it’s yet to be seen how it will reconcile that with the complex nature of distributed systems. I’m excited to see where Apcera takes NATS Streaming and generally the NATS ecosystem in the future since the team has a lot of experience in this area.