Apache Thrift is an RPC framework developed at Facebook for building “scalable cross-language services.” It consists of an interface definition language (IDL), communication protocol, API libraries, and a code generator that allows you to build and evolve services independently and in a polyglot fashion across a wide range of languages. This is nothing new and has been around for over a decade now.
There are a number of notable users of Thrift aside from Facebook, including Twitter (mainly by way of Finagle), Foursquare, Pinterest, Uber (via TChannel), and Evernote, among others—and for good reason, Thrift is mature and battle-tested.
The white paper explains the motivation behind Thrift in greater detail, though I think the following paragraph taken from the introduction does a pretty good job of summarizing it:
As Facebook’s traffic and network structure have scaled, the resource demands of many operations on the site (i.e. search, ad selection and delivery, event logging) have presented technical requirements drastically outside the scope of the LAMP framework. In our implementation of these services, various programming languages have been selected to optimize for the right combination of performance, ease and speed of development, availability of existing libraries, etc. By and large, Facebook’s engineering culture has tended towards choosing the best tools and implementations available over standardizing on any one programming language and begrudgingly accepting its inherent limitations.
Basically, as Facebook scaled, they moved more and more away from PHP and the LAMP stack and became increasingly polyglot. I think this same evolution is seen at most startups as they grow into themselves. We saw a similar transition in my time at Workiva, moving from our monolothic Python application on Google App Engine to a polyglot service-oriented architecture in AWS. It was an exciting but awkward time as we went through our adolescence as an engineering culture and teams started to find their identities. Teams learned what it meant to build backward-compatible APIs and loosely coupled services, how to deprecate APIs, how to build resilient and highly available systems, how to properly instrument services and diagnose issues, how to run and manage the underlying infrastructure, and—most importantly—how to collaborate with each other. There was lots of stumbling and mistakes along the way, lots of postmortems, lots of stress, but with that comes the learning and growing. The payoff is big but the process is painful. I don’t think it ever isn’t.
With one or two services written in the same language and relatively few developers, it was easy to just stick with “REST” (in quotes because it’s always a bastardized version of what REST ought to be), sling some JSON around, and call it a day. As the number of tech stacks and integration points increase, it becomes apparent that some standards are important. And once things are highly polyglot with lots of developers and lots of services running with lots of versions, strict service contracts become essential.
Uber has a blog post on building microservices that explains this and why they settled on Thrift to solve this problem.
Since the number of service calls grows rapidly, it is necessary to maintain a well-defined interface for every call. We knew we wanted to use an IDL for managing this interface, and we ultimately decided on Thrift. Thrift forces service owners to publish strict interface definitions, which streamlines the process of integrating with services. Calls that do not abide by the interface are rejected at the Thrift level instead of leaking into a service and failing deeper within the code. This strategy of publicly declaring your interface emphasizes the importance of backwards compatibility, since multiple versions of a service’s Thrift interface could be in use at any given time. The service author must not make breaking changes, and instead must only make non-breaking additions to the interface definition until all consumers are ready for deprecation.
Early on, I was tasked with building a unified messaging solution that would help with our integration challenges. The advantages of a unified solution should be obvious: reusability (before this, everyone was solving the problem in their own way), focus (allow developers to focus on their problem space, not the glue), acceleration (if the tools are already available, there’s less work to do), and shared pain points (it’s a lot easier to prioritize your work when everyone is complaining about the same thing). Also, a longer term benefit is developing the knowledge of this shared solution into an organizational competency which has a sort of “economy of scale” to it. Our job was not just to ship a messaging platform but evangelize it and help other teams to be successful with it. We did this through countless blog posts, training sessions, workshops, talks, and even a podcast.
Before we set out on building a common messaging solution, there were a few key principles we used to guide ourselves. We wanted to provide a core set of tools, libraries, and infrastructure for service integration. We wanted a solution that was rigid yet flexible. We provide only a minimal set of messaging patterns to act as generic building blocks with strict, strongly typed APIs, and promote design best practices and a service-oriented mindset. This meant supporting service evolution and API iteration through versioning and backward compatibility, allowing for resiliency patterns like timeouts, retries, circuit breakers, etc., and generally advocating asynchronous, loosely coupled communication. Lastly, we had to keep in mind that, at the end of the day, developers are just trying to ship stuff, so we had to balance these concerns out with ergonomics and developer experience so they could build, integrate, and ship quickly.
In addition to RPC, we wanted to promote a more asynchronous, message-passing style of communication with pub/sub. This would allow for greater flexibility in messaging patterns like fan-out and fan-in, interest-based messaging, and reduced coupling and fragility of services. This enables things like the worker pattern where we can distribute work to a pool of workers and scale that pool independently, whereas RPC tends to promote more stateful types of services. In my experience, developers tend to bias towards stateful services since this is how we’ve built things for a long time, but as we’ve entered the cloud-native era, things are running in containers which are autoscaled, more ephemeral, and more distributed. We have to grapple with the complexity imposed by distributed systems. This is why asynchronous messaging is important and why we wanted to support it from the onset.
We selected NATS as a messaging backplane because of its simplicity, performance, scalability, and adoption of the cloud-native mentality. When it comes to service integration, you need an always-on dial tone and NATS provides just that. Because of Thrift’s pluggable transport layer, we could build a NATS RPC transport while also providing HTTP and TCP transports.
Unfortunately, Thrift doesn’t provide any kind of support for pub/sub, and we wanted the same guarantees for it that we had with RPC, like type safety and versioning with code-generated APIs and service contracts. Aside from this, Thrift has a number of other, more glaring problems:
- Head-of-line blocking: a single, slow request will block any subsequent requests for a client.
- Out-of-order responses: an out-of-order response puts a Thrift transport in a bad state, requiring it to be torn down and reestablished, e.g. if a slow request times out at the client, the client issues a subsequent request, and a response comes back for the first request, the client blows up.
- Concurrency: a Thrift client cannot be shared between multiple threads of execution, requiring each thread to have its own client issuing requests sequentially. This, combined with head-of-line blocking, is a major performance killer. This problem is compounded when each transport has its own resources, such as a socket.
- RPC timeouts: Thrift does not provide good facilities for per-request timeouts, instead opting for a global transport read timeout.
- Request headers: Thrift does not provide support for request metadata, making it difficult to implement things like authentication/authorization and distributed tracing. Instead, you are required to bake these things into your IDL or in a wrapped transport. The problem with this is it puts the onus on service providers rather than allowing an API gateway or middleware to perform these functions in a centralized way.
- Middleware: Thrift does not have any support for client or server middleware. This means clients must be wrapped to implement interceptor logic and middleware code must be duplicated within handler functions. This makes it impossible to implement AOP-style logic in a clean, DRY way.
Twitter’s Finagle addresses many of these issues but is solely for the JVM, so we decided to address Thrift’s shortcomings in a cross-platform way without completely reinventing the wheel. That is, we took Thrift and extended it. What we ended up with was Frugal, a superset of Thrift recently open sourced that aims to solve the problems described above while also providing support for asynchronous pub/sub APIs—a sort of Thrift on steroids as I’ve come to call it. Its key features include:
- Request multiplexing: client requests are fully multiplexed, allowing them to be issued concurrently while simultaneously avoiding the head-of-line blocking and out-of-order response problems. This also lays some groundwork for asynchronous messaging patterns.
- Thread-safety: clients can be safely shared between multiple threads in which requests can be made in parallel.
- Pub/sub: IDL and code-generation extensions for defining pub/sub APIs in a type-safe way.
- Request context: a first-class request context object is added to every operation which allows defining request/response headers and per-request timeouts. By making the context part of the Frugal protocol, headers can be introspected or even injected by external middleware. This context could be used to send OAuth2 tokens and user-context information, avoiding the need to include it everywhere in your IDL and handler logic. Correlation IDs for distributed tracing purposes are also built into the request context.
- Middleware: client- and server- side middleware is supported for RPC and pub/sub APIs. This allows you to implement interceptor logic around handler functions, e.g. for authentication, logging, or retry policies. One can easily integrate OpenTracing as a middleware, for example.
- Cross-language: support for Go, Java, Dart, and Python (2.7 and 3.5).
Frugal adds a second kind of transport alongside Thrift’s RPC transport for pub/sub. With this, we provide a NATS transport for both pub/sub and RPC (internally, Workiva also has an at-least-once delivery pub/sub transport built around Amazon SQS for mission-critical data). In addition to this, we built a SDK which developers use to connect to the messaging infrastructure (such as NATS) with minimal ceremony. The messaging SDK played a vital role not just in making it easy for developers to adopt and integrate, but providing us a shim where we could introduce sweeping changes across the organization in one place, such as adding instrumentation, tracing, and authentication. This enabled us to roll critical integration components out to every service by making a change in one place.
To support pub/sub, we extended the Thrift IDL with an additional top-level construct called a scope, which is effectively a pub/sub namespace (basically what a service is to RPC). We wrote the IDL using a parsing expression grammar which allows us to generate a parser. We then implemented a code generator for the various language targets. The Frugal compiler is written in Go and is, at least in my opinion, much more maintainable than Thrift’s C++ codebase. However, the language libraries make use of the existing Thrift APIs, such as protocols, transports, etc. This means we didn’t need to implement any of the low-level mechanics like serialization.
I’ve since left Workiva (and am now actually working on NATS), but as far as I know, Frugal helps power nearly every production service at the company. It was an interesting experience from which I learned a lot. I was happy to see some of that work open sourced so others could use it and learn from it.
Of course, if I were starting over today, things would probably look different. GRPC is much more mature and the notion of a “service mesh” has taken the container world by storm with things like Istio, Linkerd, and Envoy. What we built was Workiva’s service mesh, we just didn’t have a name for it, so we called it a “Messaging SDK.” The corollary to this is you don’t need to adopt bleeding-edge tech to be successful. The concepts are what’s important, and if enough people are working on the same types of problems in parallel, they will likely converge on solutions that look very similar to each other given enough time and enough people working on them.
I think there’s a delicate balance between providing solutions that are “easy” from a developer point of view but may provide longer term drawbacks when it comes to building complex systems the “right” way. I see RPC as an example of this. It’s an “easy” abstraction but it hides a lot of complexity. Service meshes might even be in this category, but they have obvious upsides when it comes to building software in a way that is scalable. Peter Alvaro’s Strange Loop talk “I See What You Mean” does a great job of articulating this dilemma, which I’ve also written about myself. In the end, we decided to optimize for shipping, but we took a principled approach: provide the tools developers need (or want) but help educate them to utilize those tools in a way that allows them to ship products that are reliable and maintainable. Throwing tools or code over the wall is not enough.